large tree native to Europe. These plants have slow growth and are very long-lived; they have a powerful, very branched trunk, with rounded, pyramidal or disordered foliage; the bark is dark, deeply fissured in the specimens of some years of age. The leaves are lobed, leathery, dark green, shiny, turning bronze in autumn, before falling. Over the years they become majestic specimens, even if often the bonsai lovers prefer to cultivate small oaks keeping them small in size. Generally these plants are quite difficult to cultivate and are not recommended for beginners, as pruning must be done very carefully and it is not always easy to obtain small leaves.
oaks are pruned in autumn or late winter, avoiding too drastic interventions, which could cause excessive stress to the plant; during the vegetative period the shoots are pinched, leaving a couple of small leaves. Total or partial defoliation is not recommended, as it tends to produce large leaves.
Evonymus – Euonymus alatus
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Gorse – Ulex europaeus
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Exposure: place in a sunny place, remembering to move the plant in partial shade during the hottest months of the year. Young specimens, or with very small containers, need root protection in the months with low temperatures.
Watering: from March to October, water regularly, allowing the soil to dry out between one watering and the next. During the vegetative period provide fertilizer for green plants, every 15-20 days, using a half dose compared to the one recommended on the package. Soil: oaks need a light and rich soil, very well drained; it is prepared by mixing a part of peat, a part of clay and a part of sand; it is advisable to repot every 2-3 years, as the plants grow very slowly.
Multiplication: usually occurs by seed, in autumn; if you want to sow in spring it is advisable to leave the seeds for at least 10-15 days in the refrigerator, to simulate the winter season. In general, given the slowness of development, there is a tendency to take specimens suitable for bonsai cultivation directly in nature.
Pests and Diseases: Young oak trees tend to get sick with powdery mildew very frequently, especially if they are in poorly ventilated places.