Modern gardens, also known as karesansui, are created indifferently on small surfaces or in large spaces, and are based on a fundamental element, namely emptiness. In proportion to the amount of space available, in fact, there are few elements that characterize the modern garden. Among these can not miss the stone, in the form of carefully selected stones and specially placed in the center of bare areas. Usually, there is an area of white sand or gravel (crushed and powdered marble or granite are fine, as long as they have a homogeneous color) characterized by a flat surface, above which it is necessary to place the stones in an asymmetrical order and strictly in odd numbers, isolated or in groups. After that, it is necessary to rake the sand (or gravel) creating parallel grooves, without interruptions: symbolically, they represent longevity and good health. There are five types of stones that can be distinguished: the kikyaku are mainly used to make the environment more harmonious, and are reclined; the reisho, on the other hand, refer to firmness and solidity, and it is no coincidence that they are low and vertical; the shintai are placed next to the water, and are horizontal and flat; the shigyo are branched and arched; and finally the tatidos, which symbolize fertility, and are vertical and high. Very significant, as well as aesthetically interesting, are the miniature bridges that can be aggregated to the composition according to a double meaning: the passage through the sea and above all the acquisition of a different point of view on the various aspects of life. THE modern gardens they are recognized for the essential and sober character that dominates them. As for the arrangement of the grooves on the gravel and stones, it can be changed over time, according to personal needs and tastes.
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The making of a modern garden however, it is based on complete respect for the natural element, and cannot ignore the need to conform and integrate harmoniously into the surrounding environment. It is evident that the design must be accurate and aimed at arranging each element on the basis of a natural order, just as each component must have an adequate space in terms of width and position. Although it may appear to be a contradiction in terms, for a garden to appear natural it requires a very thorough preventive study. Modern gardens, in particular, must be thought of as an extension of the house, a continuation of the dwelling: the space, that is, in which life passes from closed to open. Expression of the fusion of botany, architecture, gardening and engineering, i modern gardens they may also require masonry, flooring, fences and excavations. These are works, not always necessary, but which must be planned in time, especially in relation to the expenses that will have to be faced. Precisely in this regard, it is advisable to combine planning with a weighted assessment of the economic budget, to verify that the interventions to be made are in line with the spending possibilities.
It should be noted, on the other hand, that when we talk about modern gardens we are not referring only to Zen gardens, but also to green spaces designed in an innovative way: the case of green roofs, hanging gardens and above all vertical gardens, is always a reality. more widespread in Northern Europe and which is progressively gaining traction also in large Italian cities. In essence, these are gardens created on the walls of a building, internal or external, but also on the balcony or terrace of the house, based on the principle – too often neglected – that plants do not need soil to grow but water and air. The vertical gardens, therefore, are configured as an example of modern garden which combines aesthetics and practicality: in fact, they are essential as an air filter, limiting the harmful action of polluting atmospheric agents, and at the same time constitute a sound-absorbing barrier against noise and acoustic pollution. We must not forget the guaranteed thermal insulation action towards the house or building on which they are made, essential both in winter and in summer. Furthermore, nothing prevents you from turning the vertical garden into an advertising message, using flowers of different colors or cutting the grass at different heights.
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