Bonsai is an art in particular the art of creating miniatures of trees by cultivating them for years in small pots, in fact with particular techniques the plant material is guided to take on particular shapes and sizes.The term bonsai derives from the Japanese and Bon means tray or container while the term sai would mean to educate but in this case it indicates to cultivate. This is a very ancient Chinese horticultural crop, practiced for more than a thousand years, but in reality it is used to create a miniature plant, which has all the characteristics that the plant has in reality. This technique was developed on the basis of the theory of the five elements, water, fire, wood, metal and earth, it is of particular interest to us also from the didactic point of view, in fact a student, with a miniature, can see details that in reality could become difficult, because it would be necessary to face several difficulties. Bonsai originated from an ancient Chinese pun-sai technique, initially only the elite of societies practiced this art and the creations were distributed throughout China as a luxury gift. Then everything was inherited from Japan, in fact in the Kamakura period, all the traditions were adopted by the Japanese, they began to create Bonsai under the influence of Zen Buddhism and the fact that the Japanese territory was only four percent of the Chinese one. Many famous techniques, styles and tools were developed by the Japanese based on Chinese traditions. After many centuries, only in recent years the art of Bonsai has developed in other lands outside its lands of origin. The cultivation of Bonsai requires great attention, also based on the type of tree to be reproduced; depending on the plant species to be reproduced, an appropriate pot must be purchased and the needs of the plant itself must be taken into account. The main goal of Bonsai cultivation is to reproduce real miniatures of plants, whose peculiarity is to look like old trees while remaining small.In general almost all tree species can become Bonsai, but there are some that are much more suitable others, including those species which have small leaves. There is some knowledge that cannot and must not be underestimated since the success of the operation depends on them.For the cultivation of a bonsai you can start from two cases, the first is the purchase of a Bonsai that has already grown, but that for you must continue to cultivate and the second case that of starting from seeds. Naturally there is a greater difficulty starting from the seeds, as the most delicate moment, in which the plant must be born. It is possible to buy a bonsai in any garden center; you can give life to a Bonsai starting from the seeds or from a cutting implies that a high dose of patience is required, as the growth times are very slow. The seeds are plants are available in the woods and parks, in the autumn period, while the cuttings are available in the summer. Another way to start a Bonsai cultivation, is to collect the plants in the woods, which then subsequently have to be modeled There are, as already said, some particular techniques that are used for the modeling of the miniatures, the two most used propagation techniques are layering and grafting. The fundamental principle of the layering technique is to push a twig of a tree or a small branch, to put roots in a particular position by interrupting the flow system of nutrients coming from the roots, which are, the most important apparatus of the plant in how much the growth of the plant depends on them.
– the first concerns the stylization of the bonsai through the pruning system. A special stylization, such as regular maintenance pruning could be, are key to creating and maintaining a tree with natural and real features in miniature. When you want to model a plant, you have to decide which branches are best suited to the project and which ones need to be removed, which could be the most difficult task of the whole crop. So, first of all, you have to take into consideration, that is, you have to keep in mind a basic project of the tree, deciding, above all, what the front part of the plant should be. From this point, or from this position, one could start thinking, which branches must be removed, or pruned to optimize the general shape of the tree, making it more personal. After that, having decided the initial setting, that is after having decided more or less the general lines, the regular pruning of the fundamental tree is important to push the plant to develop a luxuriant vegetation, that is a thick crown and a root system that is adequate, to best perform its function and a good structure of the branches, giving it the desired shape, which will naturally keep over time, if taken care of.
While it is true that bonsai has oriental origins, it is widely used on the western market, in particular, those bonsai that have reached a certain size are sold, as cultivation is less difficult. Prices on the western market vary depending on the size, in fact they are bought mainly in medium sizes.